How to determine if a population is in genetic equilibrium? The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator helps you figure this out. Just enter values into the calculator, one can find out if the population follows the Hardy-Weinberg principle.

**What is Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?**

The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium is a principle in genetics. It states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant from generation to generation, given certain conditions. This equilibrium helps scientists understand genetic variation in populations.

## Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator

### Results

**Chi-squared**:

**Expected Common Homozygotes**:

**Expected Heterozygotes**:

**Expected Rare Homozygotes**:

### How to Use the Calculator

To use the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator:

**Enter Common Homozygotes**: Input the number of individuals with the most common genotype.**Enter Heterozygotes**: Input the number of individuals with mixed genotypes.**Enter Rare Homozygotes**: Input the number of individuals with the least common genotype.

**Example Inputs**

- Common Homozygotes: 100
- Heterozygotes: 50
- Rare Homozygotes: 30

### Formula

The formula used for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is:

`${p}^{2}+2pq+{q}^{2}=1$`

**Variables**

Symbol |
Explanation |
---|---|

${p}^{2}$ | Frequency of common homozygous individuals |

$2pq$ | Frequency of heterozygous individuals |

${q}^{2}$ | Frequency of rare homozygous individuals |

### How to Calculate Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

**Follow these steps to calculate:**

**Step 1**: Calculate the total population.

`Total = Common Homozygotes + Heterozygotes + Rare Homozygotes`

**Step 2**: Calculate the frequency of allele p.

`$p=\frac{2\times \text{CommonHomozygotes}+\text{Heterozygotes}}{2\times \text{Total}}$`

**Step 3**: Calculate the frequency of allele q.

$q=1-p$

**Step 4**: Calculate expected frequencies:

`Expected Common Homozygotes = Total`

$\times {p}^{2}$

`Expected Heterozygotes = Total`

$\times 2pq$

`Expected Rare Homozygotes = Total`

$\times {q}^{2}$

### Example Solved

**Step 1**:

Total = 100 + 50 + 30 = 180

**Step 2**:

$p=\frac{2\times 100+50}{2\times 180}=0.694$

**Step 3**:

$q=1-0.694=0.306$

**Step 4**:

`Expected Common Homozygotes = 180`

$\times (0.694{)}^{2}$

`Expected Heterozygotes = 180`

$\times 2\times 0.694\times 0.306$

`Expected Rare Homozygotes = 180`

$\times (0.306{)}^{2}$

### Calculation Example

Basic Example |
Advanced Example |
---|---|

Common Homozygotes: 90 | Common Homozygotes: 200 |

Heterozygotes: 60 | Heterozygotes: 100 |

Rare Homozygotes: 50 | Rare Homozygotes: 50 |

Total: 200 | Total: 350 |

p: 0.675 | p: 0.786 |

q: 0.325 | q: 0.214 |

Expected Common Homozygotes: 91.13 | Expected Common Homozygotes: 216.85 |

Expected Heterozygotes: 87.75 | Expected Heterozygotes: 117.57 |

Expected Rare Homozygotes: 21.12 | Expected Rare Homozygotes: 15.58 |

## FAQs

**What is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium used for?**

It helps in studying genetic variation and understanding evolutionary processes.

**Can I use this calculator for any species?**

Yes, as long as you have the necessary genotype frequencies.

**Why is my calculation not matching?**

Ensure all inputs are correct and check for any calculation errors.

### Conclude

How did the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Calculator work for you? We hope it provided valuable insights into genetic equilibrium. Share your experience and feedback; we’d love to hear how the tool helped you!